The difference in acoustic output from RAP and ZWave is analogous to the difference between nano and pico-second lasers. This can be seen graphically by comparing oscilloscope recordings of the two devices(1). The pulse duration for RAP is about 20 times shorter than ZWave and the shockwave rise time for RAP is more than 50 times faster. As well, RAP is capable of nearly 10 times the peak pressure of ZWave. We believe the very short rise time for RAP (less than 100 nanoseconds(2)) is critical to its ability to concentrate energy and generate shear waves at the sub-cellular scale. As well, what is shown here is a single pulse, however RAP is capable of repetition rates of 100 times per second, approximately 4 times the repetition rate of ZWave at maximum output. Independent research supports the importance of repetition rates beyond 25 times per second to exploit the relaxation rate of cellular structures, which are considered viscoelastic and will stiffen and become more vulnerable when that relaxation rate is substantially exceeded.


Hydrophone measurements using an Onda Corporation AIMS III (Acoustic Intensity Measurement System) using HNR-1000 Hydrophone; ZWave setup: ZWavePro set to maximum output (185 mJ), using ZWave Handpiece 2.2

(1) Based on a comparison commissioned by Soliton

(2) RAP’s rise time is actually shorter than the frequency response of the HNR-1000 Hydrophone (10 MHz), so its rise time is likely faster than we are reporting here.

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